CHESS (from the Persian. The shah a floor-mat - the master has died), game by 32 figures (on 16 - white and black colour) on a 64-cellular board for two partners. The purpose - to put a floor-mat to the king of the opponent. The native land of chess - India. In Russia chess has appeared in 9-10 centuries In International chess federation FIDE (FIDE - Federation Internationale des Echecs, the international chess federation, is based in 1924) apprx. 160 countries (1999).
CHESS (from the Persian shah a floor-mat - the master has died), game by 32 figures (on 16 white and black colours) on a 64-cellular board for two contenders. The purpose - to put a floor-mat to the king of the opponent.
The ancient game originating in India and having centuries-old history; combines elements of a science, art and sports. Promotes development of imagination and concentration of attention, character and will education, accustoms to think logically. It is used as model of scientific researches in the COMPUTER, psychology and pedagogics. It is closely connected in the historical development with many areas of culture.
Chaturanga, шатранг, шатрандж
Under the certificate of archeological excavations - the games connected with movement of counters on a board, were known in 3-4 centuries BC
The most ancient form of chess - military game чатуранга - has appeared in the first centuries d.C. In India чатурангой the system of an army including fighting chariots (ратха), elephants (хасти), a cavalry (ашва) and the pedestrian soldiers (падати) was called. Game symbolised fight with participation of four combat arms over which the leader supervised. They settled down on corners of a 64-cellular square board (аштапады), 4 persons participated in game. Movement of figures was defined by throwing of bones. Чатуранга existed in India to нач. 20 century also began to be called in due course «чатурраджа» - game of four kings; thus figures began to be painted in 4 colours - black, red, yellow and green. Game шатранг (чатранг) which has arisen in the Central Asia in a game became a heiress чатуранги. 5 - нач. 6 centuries Had two "camps" of figures and the new figure representing the adviser of the king - фарзина; two contenders played. The game purpose - to put a floor-mat to the king of the contender. So «case game» was replaced with "reason game». In 8-9 centuries шатранг has extended from the Central Asia on the East and the West where it became known under the Arabian name шатрандж. In шатрандже (9-15 centuries) terminology and arrangement of figures шатранга has remained, but appearance of figures has changed. In view of prohibition by Islam of the image of live beings, Arabs used tiny abstract figures in the form of small cylinders and cones that simplified their manufacturing, promoted game distribution. The strongest players шатранджа along with Arabs - It is scarlet-adli, etc. - there were natives of Central Asia - Абу Наим, аль Хадим, ar-strike, the expert-promise, al-Ladzhladzh, Abu-l-Fath, etc. Among patrons of game there were known Caliphs Harun-ar-Rashid, al-Amin, al-Mamun, etc. Game developed slowly as only a castle, the king and a horse went by modern rules, the range of action of other figures has been extremely limited. For example, the queen moved only on one field on a diagonal.
Thanks to abstract figures game has gradually ceased to be perceived in the people as a symbol of military battle and more and more associated with everyday peripetias that has found the reflexion in the epos and the treatises devoted to chess game (the Lobster Khayyam, Саади, Bottoms).
In the early Middle Ages шатрандж has got into Europe - Spain, Italy, later to England, Germany, France. In Byzantium, in Russia, in Bulgaria game became known approximately in 10-12 centuries With the Arabian period occurrence of the so-called descriptive notation thanks to which there was possible a record of the played parties is connected also.
Despite furious resistance originally Muslim, and then and the Christian church equated chess to gamblings in a bone and considering them «devilish delusion», chess gradually became one of popular games not only among the feudal nobility, but also in the people.
In 14-15 centuries of tradition of east chess in Europe have been lost, and in 15-16 centuries the withdrawal from them after a number of changes in rules of courses of pawns, an elephant and a queen became obvious.
Legislators of "a chess fashion»
In 16-17 centuries chess has received the greatest distribution in Italy where there was combinational «a chess school» (Italian). Thanks to good matches and works of its best representatives - J. Leonardo, P.Boi, J. Greek, A.Salvio - chess game has been erected in an art rank.
In 18 century France became the centre of a chess life. Here for the first time the algebraic chess notation (in F.Stammy's book, 1737) has been used. And the strongest chess maestro of that time F.A.Filidor, having written the book «Analysis of chess game» (1749), has outstripped time. Many positions of its item doctrine promoted the further progress of chess which has become by a subject of scientific research.
In 19 century the new contribution to development of item school have brought the best chess player of the world of the middle of century the American Floor Морфи (in practice has shown a role of the pawn centre), first Russian master Alexander Petrov (underlined importance of concrete calculation in an estimation of a position and a protection role in a game of chess), the first world champion on chess Wilhelm Stejnits (has offered the new strategy of game based on accumulation of small advantages for the purpose of strengthening of the position and easing of position of the opponent).
In 1920th there was a new current - the "hypermodernism" which bright representatives were A.Nimtsovich, R.Reti, S.Tartakover. They rejected dogmatism and offered original ways to struggle for the initiative.
From the beginning of 1930th more and more important role in development of chess is played by the Soviet school, which representatives, having accumulated the best theoretical opening of the past, have creatively developed and have deepened the theory and practice of chess game. Among its main achievements - working out of the scientifically-proved method of preparation for the competitions, which pioneer was Michael Botvinnik, new opening in the theory of debuts and an end-game.
The game of chess is subdivided into three stages - a debut, миттельшпиль, an end-game.
The debut - an initial stage of chess struggle (about 15-20 courses), is characterised by mobilisation of forces playing. Debuts happen opened (when on the first course of a royal white pawn on two fields forward 1. е2 - е4 black answer the same 1. E7 - е5), among them: the Spanish party, royal gambit, the Italian party, etc.; half-opened (on 1. е2 - е4 black play differently), the most popular among them - сицилианская protection, the French protection, protection Karo-Kann, Alekhin's protection; closed (when the white begin party any course, except 1. е2 - е4) - ферзевый gambit, debut Рети, the English beginning, protection Нимцовича, староиндийская and новоиндийская protection, etc.
Миттельшпиль, or the middle of game following a debut a stage of party in which the basic events in chess struggle - attack and protection, item maneuvering, as a rule, develop, a combination and a victim.
End-game - the termination, or a final part, parties. One of the most complicated stages of game in whom «the king wakes up from hibernation» and increases value of pawns; before the playing there are «terrible threats» - цугцванга (positions at which the contender is compelled to make an unprofitable, losing course) and a time trouble (a lack of time, released to the chess player on all party). In the mid-fifties there was a collective work of the Soviet chess players «Chess terminations» in 3 volumes which contained apprx. 3 thousand positions and their analyses. 30 years left later the new edition already in 5 volumes!
The game of chess is not only creative, but also always competitive process. In centuries-old history of chess game rules changed, various forms got chessmen, but always in the head of a corner the attention to the question - who was brought more strongly?!
Constantly the spectrum of chess competitions extended. In the last century game with a handicap when stronger contender gave weak odds - any chess figure, for example, has been extended. It was popular in the end of 18 - the beginning 20 centuries when in Europe known restaurants and cafe - «Режанс» in Paris became the centres of a chess life, "Main line" in Vienna, «Simpson a sofa» in London, «Доминик» in St.-Petersburg and others. But the most widespread forms of competitions of a steel: tournaments - competitions with participation of several chess players; matches - with participation of two contenders; matches-tournaments - with participation from 3 to 6 chess players playing among themselves in some circles.
Tournaments (the first has taken place in 1575 in Madrid with participation of the Spanish and Italian chess players) are spent on various systems. The most widespread - circular when the chess player should play with all other participants. From the beginning of 1970th of one of the most popular there is a Swiss system at which in the next round there are among themselves the contenders having identical quantity of points. On this system, for example, have been played from 1978 all command World chess Olympic Games, and in 1994-96 - the personal championships of Russia. Tournaments on this system are spent to short terms at the big number of participants. Besides exist: the Olympic system or as it became fashionable to name it in the end of 20th century, "knockout-system", that is the lost participant leaves competition; схевенингенская the system at which half of participants plays serially with other half (for the first time is applied on tournament in Схевенингене, 1923). As a rule, last is applied in command competitions, and also in matches popular in last years "seigneurs" (the national team of the strongest chess players of the world is more senior 60 years) - "lady" (a national team of the strongest шахматисток).
One of the most traditional forms of chess competitions - matches. Already more than 100 years in matches (the first in 1886, Stejnits-Tsukertort) is defined the strongest chess player of the world. The exception was made by a match-tournament on superiority of the world 1948 with participation of 5 chess players in 5 circles M.Botvinnik left which winner.
The popular and mass form of chess competitions - a session of simultaneous game, in which the strong chess player (сеансер) simultaneously plays (as a rule, white) against several contenders. There are some kinds of sessions: 1) ordinary when сеансер, having made a course, passes to other party; 2) the session with hours, as a rule, is given against a small number of participants (to 10 contenders); 3) a session blindly when сеансер plays not looking on a board; 4) an alternative session at which two or several masters play, doing the courses by turns. сеансеров in history of chess it is considered one of the best Х. R.Kapablanka who has given 491 session in the life, has played them 13545 parties and has typed 92 % of points! Among other champions - grand masters M.Najdorf (Argentina), G.Shtalberg (Sweden), V.Gort (Czechoslovakia), and in game blindly - G.Pilsberi's Americans and J. Koltanovsky, R.Reti's Czech, Hungarian J.Flesh and fourth world champion A.Alekhin.
In 1883 on the London international tournament a mechanical chess clock (the inventor - the English engineer G.Wilson) for the first time has been used. Since then they - indispensable attribute of any serious chess competition. Distinguish the classical control of time - 2,5 hours to each of partners on 40 courses (it was applied in world-title matches), the modern control - 2 hours to everyone till the end of party; «fast chess» - on 30 (or 25) minutes;-party "blitz" - for 5 minutes to each partner.
In 1924 during carrying out in Paris the Eighth summer Olympic games the International chess federation (ФИДЕ), the united 14 states (by the end of century unites apprx. 200 countries) has been based. Has the flag, a hymn and the motto - «All of us one family» («Gens una sumus»). With 1980 chess federation - a member of UNESCO. To 1939 basically was engaged in the organisation of carrying out of the World chess Olympic Games or «Tournaments of the Nations» and the World championships among women (with 1927). With 1950 appropriates a rank of the international grand masters among men, with 1976 - among women.
With 1947 holds the personal World championships among men which system included zone and interzonal tournaments, matches and tournaments of applicants, a match for a rank of the world champion.
Presidents ФИДЕ: A.Rjueb (the Netherlands, 1929-49); F.Rogard (Sweden, 1949-70), M.Ejve (the Netherlands, 1970-78); F.Olafsson (Iceland, 1978-82), F.Kampomanes (Philippines, 1982-95), K.Ilyumzhinov (Russia, with 1995).
The Championships and champions
For more than centenary history (1886-1996) personal World championships among men 35 world-title matches and one match-tournament are spent. In 20 matches the world champion managed to keep the rank, including in four come to the end in a draw (1910, 1951, 1954, 1987), and in 13 matches the victory was gained by the applicant (only once, in 1984-85, the match has not been finished). Five times were spent matches-revenges: in three of them (1937, 1958, 1961) the ex-world champion returned the rank. Champions on number of matches M.Botvinnik, A.Karpov and G.Kasparov - on 7; V.Stejnits and Эм. Lasker - on 6; A.Alekhin - 5. To the longest in history of chess became безлимитный (to 6 victories of one of participants) a match A.Karpov - G.Kasparov (159 days, 48 parties) which and remained not finished. Ranks of the world champion have been awarded 13 chess players: V.Stejnits, Эм. Lasker, Х. R.Kapablanka, A.Alekhin, M.Ejve, M.Botvinnik, V.Smyslov, M.Tal, T.Petrosyan, B.Spassky, the River Fisher, A.Karpov, G.Kasparov.
M.Botvinnik and M.Tal
With 1997 ФИДЕ holds World championships ФИДЕ - tournaments on so-called. To knockout-system (the lost leaves); winners became: 1997 (Lausanne) - A.Karpov, 1999 (Las Vegas - A.Khalifman).
The rank of the world champion among women is played with 1927. In 1927-39 7 tournaments in superiority of the world and one match have taken place - in all competitions the victory was gained by Belief Менчик. After the Second World War has taken place two matches-tournaments and 16 matches. World champions became V.Menchik, L.Rudenko, O.Rubtsova, E.Bykova, N.Gaprindashvili, M.Chiburdanidze, Се Цзюнь, Z.Polgar.
One of popular forms of chess competitions - when participants are on considerable distance from each other. There are some kinds of similar competitions. This, for example, game on the correspondence, the first mention about which concerns to 1694 in the book of English orientalist T.Hyde «About east entertainments», telling about game on correspondence between the Venetian and Croatian merchants. In 19 century game on correspondence was conducted by chess clubs (for example, London and Edinburgh, 1824-28; Moscow and Petersburg, 1878-79) and individually (for example, in 1876 Russian master Sergey Urusov played on correspondence party with writer Lev Tolstoi and his son Sergey).
In 1928 the International union of game in chess on correspondence (with 1951 International federation of game in chess on correspondence, ИКЧФ) is created. The national championships, competitions on superiority of the world among men, women and young men are spent.
In 1844 the party on telegraph between clubs of Washington and Baltimore has taken place. 40 years after similar meetings were spent between chess players of the European capitals (London - Vienna, 1884; Petersburg - London, 1886-87; Petersburg - Paris, 1894-95). In 20 century of competition on telegraph were especially popular in the USSR where only in superiority of Russia participated over 20 commands (with 1948).
Since 1970th distribution was received by competitions by phone, the international matches have taken place some. The most mass competitions by phone also have taken place in the USSR (1964) - a match on 100 boards between commands of Moscow and Leningrad. After the Second World War termination matches by the radio began to be led, most well-known of which was a match of national teams of the USSR - the USA, 1945, ended with a convincing victory of the Soviet chess players (15,5:4,5).
the Chess composition
One of original areas of chess art - a composition, drawing up of special positions for the decision in in advance stipulated number of courses (problem) or without certain numbers (etudes). Compositions are published in the press. Special competitions on the best and most beautiful products are held. In this century superiority of the countries and the world under various forms of a composition will be organised, the international ranks of masters and grand masters of a chess composition are appropriated.
Outstanding composers in history of chess: Сэмюэль Лойд (the USA, 1841-1911), Илья Noise (Russia, 1819-1881), Мирослав Хавель (Czechoslovakia, 1881-1958), Анри Ринк (France, 1870-1952), Alexey Troitsky (1886-1942), Leonid Kubbel (1891-1942), the Lion Loshinsky (1913-1976) - all Russia, and many other things.
the Role of chess
In 20 century chess, thanking their sharply increased popularity in the world, a role in cybernetics creation, to wide introduction of the COMPUTER in chess practice and training to game, the increasing interrelation with such areas of culture, as the literature, cinema, painting, etc., steels one of civilisation phenomena.
V.I.Linder. Article is taken from "Cyril's Big encyclopaedia and Мефодия".
• Classical chessmen. An ivory. England.
• Chess in "the mankind Chronicle".